Therefore, as one trespass led to condemnation for all men, so one act of righteousness leads to justification and life for all men” (v. 18). – Romans 5:12–21
Romans 5:12–21 is a key passage for understanding God’s plan of salvation, for it says that Adam “was a type of the one to come,” even Jesus Christ (v. 14). Knowing something of the consequences of Adam’s failure will therefore help us know why Christ suffered, died, and was resurrected (Mark 8:31).
We see in Romans 5:12 that in Adam “all sinned”; consequently, God’s condemnation fell on all people after him (v. 18). What Adam did had ramifications for our standing before the Father, and that is because of federalism. In broad terms, we find federalism represented by the United States government. Voters select representatives to stand in for them and represent their needs and desires during the lawmaking process. When legislation comes up for a vote, the representative is supposed to do what the voters he represents would do if they were present in the legislature. The federal representative whom voters send to Congress is elected because the voters believe he will do what they would do if they were lawmakers themselves.